There are no trifles in industrial lighting
An important factor on which labor productivity, safety and even the quality of manufactured products depend on is lighting. It is obvious that industrial lighting has to be energy efficient. All leaders of enterprises understand this now as tariffs for electric power constantly grow. The demand for modern lighting technologies definitely exists. Another question is that in addition to energy consumption from lighting, there are many other parameters, and the use of new technologies in lighting without the understanding of why they are necessary does not always provide a desired effect. Learning how to choose the correct lighting fixtures for industrial lighting will be discussed in this article.
The premises of manufacturing enterprises can be relatively divided into the following categories:
- Assembly shops with regular conditions;
- Production shops with special conditions (moisture, effects of chemicals, high temperature, danger of explosion);
- Design offices, research departments (except for some laboratories), and administrative services;
- Warehouse and utility rooms.
The same requirements are imposed to lights that are installed in design offices and administration premises as are to office lamps. In subsidiaries and warehouses the so-called technical light — lights of a standard sample that have sufficient parameters for such applications — are often installed. For lights installed in production shops, additional requirements connected with production conditions are imposed.
Parameters of lights for production shops
Lights installed in production shops are imposed with additional requirements besides the key light parameters, such as the light stream power consumption and color temperature. Hence, the important parameter is the corner of light distribution, as production shops have, as a rule, wide spacing on ceiling heights. Therefore, the corner of light distribution of the lights and the searchlights intended for production rooms with high ceilings is in limits 15 … 30 ˚, and in rooms with low ceilings it is better to use lights with a corner of distribution of light about 120 ˚.
In case the light is affected by dust and moisture that often occurs on production, it has to have protection against these factors. The extent of protection is designated by the Latin letters IP (ingress protection) and by two figures, the first (from 0 to 6) from which shows protection from dust, and the second (from 0 to 8) — from moisture. The bigger the figures, the better.
It is obvious that lights with protection against moisture are required primarily on production sites with high humidity and also in case there is a threat of water hitting the lamp. In certain cases, such lights were installed in shops in which during operating time there is no water threat and humidity remains at normal levels. In the conditions of so-called "pure productions," the lights with a high degree of protection against moisture (not below IP54) are usually used, even if a shop is completely dry. The fact is that such lights indoors are not wiped, and washed with a stream of water instead. In addition, there is a correlation between the extent of protection against dust and the extent of protection against moisture. In order for the light to be protected against the smallest amount dust, it is necessary to make it airtight, while simultaneously exhibiting properties of protection against water. For this reason, you will not find the sale of lights with the extent of protection of IP50 or IP60.
The level of protection should be up to IP56 for lights in inaccessible places, regardless of humidity in the room and requirements to its purity. It allows washing out its stream of water under pressure. Thus the employee who is carrying out the cleaning can be at some distance from the lamp.
On productions where there is a probability of explosion, light with additional protection is applied. This protection eliminates the possibility of an electric spark or intense heating of the light, which is capable of causing an explosion.
If an explosion occurs, the lamp should not be a source of additional danger. There are three levels of explosion protection: 2 — the lamp has protection against explosion under normal operation conditions; 1 — protection against explosion is provided in extreme conditions; 0 — special measures for explosion protection are used.
In ensuring explosion protection there are no trifles. For example, in shops where there is fine dust in the air there is a risk of explosion. It settles on the light heating sink, the efficiency of heat removal decreases, the light overheats, and it can lead to explosion. In the explosion-proof lamps of the Russian company "AtomSvet" the heating sinks of a special design are used, which provides efficiency and safety in order to work even in strong pollution atmospheres with dust.
Pulsations of a light stream and color rendition index
At high levels of light stream pulsations workers quickly develop fatigue. But pulsations are a question not only of comfort, but also of safety. At high pulsation levels there is a stroboscopic effect when it seems that rotating details of mechanisms stand or move in the opposite direction. It does not allow workers to estimate correctly the possible danger that can lead to serious consequences. The set of rules of the joint venture existing in Russia 52.13330.2011 establishes "Natural and artificial lighting" as when working with high precision the coefficient of a pulsation of a light stream has to be no more than 15%, and when working with very high and the highest precision — no more than 10%. If local illumination of a workplace has low pulsation levels, the general lighting in the shop can have a higher pulsation level which, however, should not exceed 20%.
Failure to follow the pulsations is the most common flaw of industrial lighting lamps. In relation to LED lamps the high coefficient of pulsations indicates the use of the simplified low-quality power unit (driver). Typically, these power units are not characterized by high reliability, therefore it is better not to get lamps with high pulsation levels, even for the illumination of utility rooms where the level of pulsations is not normalized.
In addition, the pulsation level from the point of view of comfort and safety is an important color rendering index Ra, showing how color shades are precisely distinguished. It influences the quality of production: The change of a material shade allows distinguishing marriage in time. Global manufacturers of industrial LED lamps of the Philips and Zumtobel level manufacture products for the illumination of shops as a rule with Ra >80. From the Russian producers adhering to such a rule, it is possible to note the AtomSvet Company. The pulsation and patches of light in the company’s lamps are absent, and a color rendition is Ra >80 that allows the avoidance of the visual fatigue of workers and also to lower traumatism level on production. In industrial lighting such advantages of light-emitting diodes as the increased resistance to vibration influences is also important.
Unlike some traditional light sources, light-emitting diodes do not contain mercury and other toxic substances polluting the environment. Therefore for LED lamps, special measures of utilization are not provided. Low power consumption, qualitative light and lack of pollution factors to the environment facilitate the passing of ecological certification to the enterprises where LED lamps are installed. In particular, without modern lighting it is difficult to receive the international certificates of LEED and BREEAM most fully estimating the impact on the environment.
Vadim Dadyka, director general of the AtomSvet Company:
"In AtomSvet® lamps the new manufacturing techniques of a heat-removing payment ALOX allowing considerable improvement for the coefficient of heat conductivity in comparison with traditional methods are applied. Thanks to this, it was possible for an introduction of the driver of management by light-emitting diodes in uniform construct (on one general payment) that considerably improved thermal operating modes of elements of the scheme and simplified the assembly process of lamps. In addition, AtomSvet lamps have a class of protection against the influence of external environment of IP67 due to filling by a compound of the main working elements and lamp knots. This technology successfully stood the test of time and certification on the influence of external factors."
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